TAKE #YOUR_OWN_SUDRA BY DAENA_PATH
Zoroastrianism = Zarathustraism_Mazdaism_Magianism =
is an ancient monotheistic Iranian religion and a religious philosophy. It was once the state religion of the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires. Estimates of the current number of Zoroastrians worldwide vary between approximately 145,000 circa 2000 and 2.6 million in more recent estimates. The change over the last decade is attributed to a greater level of reporting and open self-identification more so than to an actual increase in population; however, precise numbers remain difficult to obtain in part due to high levels of historic persecution in Middle Eastern regions.
Zoroastrianism arose in the eastern region of the ancient Persian Empire, when the religious philosopher Zoroaster simplified the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces_
_Spenta Mainyu (“progressive mentality”)
_Angra Mainyu (“destructive mentality”)
under the one God_
_Ahura Mazda_ Illuminating Wisdom
Zoroaster’s ideas led to a formal religion bearing his name by about the 6th century BCE and have influenced other later religions including Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity and Islam.
_one who brings benefit
is a figure of Zoroastrian eschatology who brings about the final renovation of the world, the_
is a final renovation of the universe, when evil will be destroyed, and everything else will be then in perfect unity with God (Ahura Mazda). The name suggests “making wonderful, excellent”.
The doctrinal premises are:
_good will eventually prevail over evil
_creation was initially perfectly good, but was subsequently corrupted by evil;
_the world will ultimately be restored to the perfection it had at the time of creation
_the salvation for the individual depended on the sum of [that person’s] thoughts, words and deeds, and there could be no intervention, whether compassionate or capricious, by any divine being to alter this. Thus, each human bears the responsibility for the fate of his own soul, and simultaneously shares in the responsibility for the fate of the world.
Ahura Mazda = Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, and Hurmuz
_Lord_spirit_higher divine spirit of the old Iranian religion (predating Islam)
_is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna.
The literal meaning of the word
_Ahura is light
_Mazda is wisdom.
Zoroastrianism revolves around three basic tenets_
Good Thoughts_Good Words_Good Deeds =
_is the eternal Law, whose order was revealed to humanity through the Mathra-Spenta_Holy Words”). Daena has been used to mean religion, faith, law, and even as a translation for the Hindu and Buddhist term Dharma. The latter is often interpreted as “duty” but can also mean social order, right conduct, or virtue. The metaphor of the “path” of Daena is represented in Zoroastrianism by the muslin undershirt_
is an Avestan language term for a class of divine entities in Zoroastrianism, and literally means “Bounteous Immortal” (in reverse word order) Later Middle Persian variations of the term include the contraction ‘Ameshaspand’ and the specifically Zoroastrian ‘Mahraspand’ and ‘Amahraspand’.
Significantly more common than the non-specific meaning of Amesha Spenta is a restrictive use of the term to refer to the great six “divine sparks” of Ahura Mazda. In Zoroastrian tradition, these are the first six emanations of the noncreated Creator, through whom all subsequent creation was accomplished.
The “divine sparks” that appear in the Gathic Yasna 47.1 are:
_[Vohu] Manah_ approximately meaning “[Good] Purpose”
_Aša [Vahišta]_ “[Best] Truth/Righteousness”
_Xšaθra [Vairya]_ “[Desirable] Dominion”
_[Spənta] Armaiti_ “[Holy] Devotion”
_the decisive confessional concept of Zoroastrianism_truth and ‘right_eousness_ ‘order’ and ‘right working’. Its Old Persian equivalent is arta-.
Aša “cannot be precisely rendered by some single word in another tongue,” but may be summarized as follows:
It is, first of all, ‘true statement’. This ‘true statement’, because it is true, corresponds to an objective, material reality. This reality embraces all of existence. Recognized in it is a great cosmic principle since all things happen according to it.
This cosmic […] force is imbued also with morality, as verbal Truth, ‘la parole conforme’, and Righteousness, action conforming with the moral order.”
The correspondence between ‘truth’, reality, and an all-encompassing cosmic principle is not far removed from Heraclitus‘ conception of Logos.
Both Avestan aša/arta and Vedic ŗtá- are commonly translated as “truth” as this best reflects both the original meaning of the term as well as the opposition to their respective antonyms. The opposite of Avestan aša/arta is druj-, “lie.” Similarly, the opposites of Vedic ṛtá- are ánṛta- and druh, likewise “lie”.
That “truth” is also what was commonly understood by the term is attested in Greek: In Isis and Osiris 47, Plutarch calls the divinity Αλήθεια Aletheia, “Truth.”
The adjective corresponding to the noun aša/arta, “truth”, is Avestan haithya- (haiθiia-), “true”, the opposite of which is also druj-. Avestan haithya- derives from Indo-Iranian*sātya that in turn derives from Indo-European *sat- “being, existing”. The Sanskrit cognate sátya- means “true” in the sense of “really existing.” This meaning is also preserved in Avestan, for instance in the expression haiθīm varəz, “to make true” as in “to bring to realization.”[
Another meaning of “reality” may be inferred from the component parts of the aša/arta, that is, from (root) ŗ with a substantivizing -ta suffix. The root ŗ corresponds to Old Avestanarəta- and Younger Avestan ərəta- “established”, hence aša/arta “that which is established.”
The synonymity of aša and “existence” overlaps with the stock identification of Ahura Mazda as the Creator (i.e. of Existence itself). Truth is existence (creation) inasmuch as falsehood is non-existence (uncreated, anti-created). And, because aša is everything that druj- is not (or vice versa), since aša is, druj- is not.
As “right working”
“Right working” also overlaps with both Indo-European *ár- “to (properly) join together” and also with the notion of existence and realization (to make real). The word for “established”, arəta-, also means “proper”. The antonymic anarəta- (or anarəθa-) means “improper.” In Zoroastrian tradition, prayers must be enunciated with care for them to be effective. The Indo-Iranian formula *sātyas mantras (Yasna 31.6: haiθīm mathrem) “does not simply mean ‘true Word’ but formulated thought which is in conformity with the reality’ or ‘poetic (religious) formula with inherent fulfillment (realization).’