Karma gets bound to the soul on account of two processes_
Influx of karmas_occurs when the karmic particles are attracted to the soul on account of vibrations created by activities of mind_speech_and/or_body =yoga
The instrumentality of the actions, that is, either through_
body – physical action, speech – verbal action, or mind – mental action
The process of action which consists of_
decision or plan to act, making preparations for the act, like, collecting necessary materials, or actually beginning of the action
The modality of action, that consists of:
the act carried out by self, or instigating someone else to carry out the act, or giving approval or endorsing the act.
The motivation for action_
This includes any of the following negative emotions that motivates the action:
Anger, Greed, Pride, Manipulation or Deceit
Bondage or sticking of karmas to consciousness_The karmas have effect only when they are bound to the consciousness. Karmas are attracted by the activity of mind, speech and body influenced by various passions. According to Tattvārthasūtra, the causes of karmic bondage—in the order they are required to be eliminate by a soul for spiritual progress—are_
Mithyātva (Irrationality and a deluded world view)_
The deluded world view is the misunderstanding as to how this world really functions on account of one-sided perspectives, perverse viewpoints, irrational scepticism, pointless generalisations and ignorance.
Avirati (non-restraint or a vowless life)_
The second cause of bondage, avirati is the inability to refrain voluntarily from the evil actions, that harms oneself and others. The state of avirati can only be overcome by observing the minor vows of a layman.
Pramāda (carelessness and laxity of conduct)_
This third cause of bondage consists of absentmindedness, lack of enthusiasm towards acquiring merit and spiritual growth, and improper actions of mind, body and speech without any regard to oneself or others.
Kaṣāya (passions or negative emotions)_
The four passions—anger, pride, deceit and greed—are the primary reason for the attachment of the karmas to the soul. They keep the soul immersed in the darkness of delusion leading to deluded conduct and unending cycles of reincarnations.
Yoga (activities of mind, speech and body)_
The threefold activities of mind, body and speech attract and bind the karmas when such actions are influenced by passions.
Types of Karma = Prikriti
According to Jain karma theory, there are eight main types of karma (Prikriti) which are categorized into_
The harming karmas (ghātiyā karmas)
_directly affect the soul powers by impeding its perception, knowledge and energy, and also brings about delusion.
Darśanāvaraṇa (perception obscuring karma) _follow Kevala darshan
Jñānavāraṇa (knowledge obscuring karma) _follow Kevala Jnana
harbouring a feeling of jealousy towards knowledge or perception, towards a possessor of it and towards a means of it.
Wilful concealment of knowledge or perception
Ungenerosity as to knowledge
Obstruction of knowledge or perception to others
Denial of receipt of knowledge
False accusation or misrepresentation
Antarāya (obstacles creating karma) _gain infinite power
Causing obstruction to others or intending to place or placing obstacles before others in their act of beneficence, gain, satisfaction, comfort and power
Mohanīya (deluding karma) _become passionless
the soul is not able to distinguish between right and wrong.
Causes Darśana-mohanīya (Perception delusion)
Speaking ill of the omniscient and holders of true knowledge
Speaking ill of the scripture i.e. a jealous intellect leveling false charges against the scripture (e.g. Saying that this scripture is useless because it is composed in Prakrit which is a language of the illiterate alternatively, because it is composed in a complication ridden language of the pedant or that it contains a futile and bothersome description of the various vows, regulations, expiations etc.)
Speaking ill of the religious order or levelling false charges against the religious order composed of four divisions viz. monks, nuns, laymen, laywomen (e.g. saying that these monks unnecessarily take the trouble of observing vows, regulations etc., since monkhood is in fact an impossibility nor is it conducive to a wholesome result, or saying about the laymen that they undertake no cultured performances like bath, donation etc., nor do they lead a life of purity.)
Speaking ill of the religion
Speaking ill of the deities or denigrating them
Causes Cāritra-mohanīya (conduct deluding) karmas
To produce a kasaya (passions) in oneself or in others and to undertake unworthwhile acts under the influence of a kasaya
To ridicule the true religion, to make fun of a poor or helpless person, to develop the habit of frivolous joking
Indulging in various recreations evincing disinclination towards the proper moral restrains like vows and regulations
To cause worry to others, to disturb someone in one’s rest and to keep the company of petty persons
To maintain a sorrowful demeanour and to arouse a feeling of sorrow in others
To feel afraid and to frighten others
To despise a beneficial act and a beneficial general conduct
A habit for cheating and finding fault with others
To nourish mental impressions of various sexual feelings
The non-harming category (aghātiyā karmas)
_responsible for the reborn soul’s physical and mental circumstances, longevity, spiritual potential and experience of pleasant and unpleasant sensations.
nāma (body determining karma)
subha nama karmas_inauspicious karmas
Crooked and misleading actions (pertaining to mind, speech and body) causes inflow of inauspicious nāma karma
The opposite of the above—straightforwardness and genuine behaviour—causes inflow of auspicious nāma karma.
Sixteen dispositions that cause rebirth as a Tīrthaṅkara on account of Tīrthaṅkara–nāma-karma:
(1) Purity of worldview
(3) non violation of vows and abstinence
(4) persistent cultivation of knowledge
(5) ever present fear of worldly existence
(6) charity and renunciation as per one’s capacity
(7) penance as per one’s capacity
(8) ensuring harmony and peace in the religious order particularly the order of monks
(9) offering services to the competent and deserving persons
(10) devotion towards Siddhas and Tīrthaṅkaras
(11) devotion towards the preceptor
(12) devotion towards learned monks
(13) devotion towards scriptures
(14) regard for compulsory duties
(15 ) to cultivate and honour the path of mokṣa
(16) feeling of unattached affection towards the co religionists.
āyu (life span determining karma)
Determine the next destiny or reincarnation of a soul. Accordingly, as per the next reincarnations lifespan determined, a soul takes birth in either hell, heaven, animal kingdom or as a human.
Causes of the Narakayus karma or birth in hells_
Killing or causing pain with intense passion
Excessive attachment to things and worldly pleasure with constantly indulging in cruel and violent acts.
Vowless and unrestrained life
Causes of the Tiryagayus karma or birth as animals, plants or microbes_
Preaching religion to introduce sheer falsity
Propagate religion with a selfish motive,
To keep one’s life devoid of disciplined conduct
Vowless and unrestrained life
Causes of Manusyayus karma or birth as human_
To reduce the tendency to inflict injury and that to accumulate possession.
To exhibit softness and simplicity.
Vowless and unrestrained life
Helping needy (poor, friends, old peoples, blind and handicaps etc.)
Who respect humans
Causes of the Devayus karma or birth in Heavens
Having a disciplined and restrained life yet accompanied by some attachment
partial practice of vows like non violence, etc.
Refraining from evil acts but out of compulsion from external factors or for imitating others
Undergoing childish penances like fasting and austerities without understanding
Practicing vows and austerities normally leads to destruction of karmas and of attainment of moksa or liberation, but in above cases leads to merit and birth in heavens as demi gods for a long but finite period of time
gotra (status determining karma)
_Praising oneself, defaming others, hiding others’ merits and finding fault in others are the causes of low status or low class.
_Praising others, displaying one owns shortcomings, ignoring ones own merit along with humility and modesty causes the inflow of high status determining karma.
vedanīya (feeling producing karma)
Harbouring a feeling of compassion towards all the living
Leading a religious life i.e. practice of minor vows or anuvrata by householder and mahavrata by monks and ascetics
Donation and charity with humility
Self restraint or proper attentiveness towards disciplined life even if it is tinged with some attachment
Forbearance and forgiveness
Inculcating purity by suppressing the tendency towards greed and the like defilements
asātāvedanīya_unpleasant feeling_is bound on account of causing to other or oneself the following_
External or an internal pain
To feel troubled and worried on having been deprived of the company of a well wisher
Experience of acute distress or heart burning on account of insult or insulting others
To enjoy or wallow in misery, to weep and wail
Injurying self or others
Lamenting on recalling the merits of a departed one
Causes of sātāvedanīya karma
Sātāvedanīya karma is bound on account of causing to other or oneself the following