_is a concept in Hinduismwhich explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul’s reincarnatedlivesforming a cycle of rebirth. The causality is said to be applicable not only to the material world but also to our thoughts, words, actions and actions that others do under our instructions
Everything that we have ever thought, spoken, done or caused is karma, as is also that which we think, speak or do this very moment.
_literally means “deed” or “act”, and more broadly names the universal principle of cause and effect, action and reaction, which Hindus believe governs all consciousness
_through actions that we perform ourselves
_through actions others perform under our instructions
It is the sum of one’s past karmas_all actions, good and bad, from one’s past lives follow through to the next life
It would be impossible to experience and endure all karmas in one lifetime. From this stock of sanchita karma, a handful is taken out to serve one lifetime and this handful of actions, which have begun to bear fruit and which will be exhausted only on their fruit being enjoyed and not otherwise, is known as_
_is everything that we produce in the current life. All kriyamana karmas flow in to sanchita karma and consequently shape our future. Only in human life we can change our future destiny. After death we lose KriyāShakti (ability to act) and do (kriyamana) karma until we are born again in another human body.
_is the repeating cycle of birth, life and death (reincarnation) as well as one’s actions and consequences in the past, present, and future
_In Hinduism, it is avidya, or ignorance, of one’s true self that leads to ego-consciousness of the body and the phenomenal world. This grounds one in kāma(desire) and the perpetual chain of karmaand reincarnation. Through egotism and desire one creates the causes for future becoming. The state of illusion that gives rise to this is known as Maya.
Through ascetic practice one finally attains sanctity and liberation (mokshaor mukti).
Broadly speaking, the celibate holy life (brahmacarya) which leads to liberation is a path of self-purification by which the effects of negative karmas are avoided.
Reasons for Reincarnation_
Hindus provide several reasons why the jiva takes on various physical bodies_
This is the main reason for rebirth. Sattvika(good or righteous) karmas reward one with the pleasures of Svarga. Rajas (pleasure-seeking) karmas reward one with mrutyuloka (mortal realm or earth). And Tamaskarmas (actions related to inertia, laziness and evil) condemn one to patala-loka.
To satisfy one’s desires_
When a person indulges in material pleasures, he or she subsequently develops a stronger desire to enjoy more of it (Vāsanā). This unending craving to satisfy one’s desires causes the jivato assume new physical bodies.
Dharma in Hinduism, is an organizing principle that applies to human beings in solitude, in their interaction with human beings and nature, as well as between inanimate objects, to all of cosmos and its parts. It refers to the order and customs which make life and universe possible, and includes behaviors, rituals, rules that govern society, and ethics.Hindu dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, and those that are virtuous.
is one of four age-based life stages discussed in ancient and medieval era Indian texts. The four asramas are: Brahmacharya (student), Grihastha(householder), Vanaprastha (retired) and Sannyasa(renunciation).
The Ashramas system is one facet of the Dharma concept in Hinduism. It is also a component of the ethical theories in Indian philosophy, where it is combined with four proper goals of human life (Purusartha), for fulfillment, happiness and spiritual liberation
_Artha(social, legal, economic and worldly affairs)
The word artha literally translates as “meaning, sense, goal, purpose or essence” depending on the context. Artha is also a broader concept in the scriptures of Hinduism. As a concept, it has multiple meanings, all of which imply “means of life”, activities and resources that enables one to be in a state one wants to be in.
Means desire, wish, longing in Indian literature. Refers to any desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, the aestheticenjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. It is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals.
In Sāmkhya literature, liberation is commonly referred to as kaivalya. In this school, kaivalya means the realization of purusa, the principle of consciousness, as independent from mind and body, as different from prakrti.
_the emphasis is on the attainment of knowledge, vidyā or jñāna, as necessary for salvific liberation,
_Yoga’s purpose is then seen as a means to remove the avidyā – that is, ignorance or misleading/incorrect knowledge about one self and the universe.
This takes the form of questions about self, what is true, why do things or events make us happy or cause suffering, and so on.
considers moksha achievable by removing avidya (ignorance). Moksha is seen as a final release from illusion, and through knowledge (anubhava) of one’s own fundamental nature, which is Satcitananda.
Advaita holds there is no being/non-being distinction between Atman, Brahman, and Paramatman. The knowledge of Brahman leads to moksha, where Brahman is described as that which is the origin and end of all things, the universal principle behind and at source of everything that exists, consciousness that pervades everything and everyone.
define moksha as the loving, eternal union with God (Vishnu) and considered the highest perfection of existence. Dvaita schools suggest every soul encounters liberation differently.
God as the object of love, for example, a personified monotheistic conception of Shivaor Vishnu. By immersing oneself in the love of God, one’s karmas slough off, one’s illusions decay, and truth is lived. Both the worshiped and worshiper gradually lose their illusory sense of separation and only One beyond all names remains.
Defines avidya and moksha differently from the Advaita tradition. Avidya is a focus on Self, vidya is focus on a loving God. Mukti, to Vishistadvaita school, is release from such avidya, towards the intuition and eternal union with God (Vishnu)
In this life_
jivanmukti, and the individual who has experienced this state is called jivanmukta (self-realized person).
Some contrast jivanmukti with videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death).Jivanmukti is a state that transforms the nature, attributes and behaviors of an individual.
Virtues and ethical premises are considered as necessary for an individual to achieve a self-realized, enlightened, liberated state of existence (moksha).
In its Yoga school, they are described in first two of eight limbs (steps, branches, components).
The first limb is called Yamas, which include virtuous self-restraints_
The ten yamas listed by Śāṇḍilya Upanishad,as well as by Svātmārāma are: