_KARMA

 The concepts of karma refers to action driven by intention_mental_impuls (cetanā) which leads to future consequences karmaphala (fruit of action). Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in samsara, the cycle of rebirth.
The Buddha’s teaching of karma is not strictly deterministic, but incorporated circumstantial factors, unlike that of the Jains. It is not a rigid and mechanical process, but a flexible, fluid and dynamic process. There is no set linear relationship between a particular action and its results.The karmic effect of a deed is not determined solely by the deed itself, but also by the nature of the person who commits the deed, and by the circumstances in which it is committed.

The Noble Eightfold Path =

is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening
The Noble Eightfold Path is sometimes divided into three basic divisions, as follows:
Division
Eightfold Path factors
Acquired factors
Wisdom = Prajñā =
“wisdom”, is insight in the true nature of reality, namely dukkha, non-self and impermanence, and emptiness.
1. Right view
9. Superior right knowledge
2. Right intention
10. Superior right liberation
Ethical conduct = Śīla =
is a code of conduct that embraces a commitment to harmony and self-restraint with the principle motivation being non-violence, or freedom from causing harm. It has been variously described as virtue, right conduct, morality, moral discipline and precept.
3. Right speech
 
4. Right action
 
5. Right livelihood
 
Concentration = Samādhi =
is meditative absorption, attained by the practice of dhyāna. In samadhi the mind becomes still, one-pointed or concentrated while the person remains conscious.
6. Right effort
 
7. Right mindfulness
 
8. Right concentration
 

 

Paticca-Samuppada
The three marks of existence =
are three characteristics shared by all sentient beings, namely impermanence (anicca), suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha), and non-self (anattā).
Kleshas =
are mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions. Kleshas include states of mind such as anxiety, fear, anger, jealousy, desire, depression, etc.

The three poisons =

are considered to be the cause of suffering_ dukkha_
refer to the three root kleshas of_
ignorance = Moha is considered to be a fundamental ignorance of the nature of reality.
In the Mahayana tradition, moha is defined as a sub-category of this fundamental ignorance, that is a dumbfounded state of not knowing what to do–a state of being deeply clouded, in which the mind is not clear.
attachment = Raga is translated as “attachment”, “passion”, or “desire”
It is defined as hankering after things within the three realms of existence; it produces frustration.
Is identified in the following contexts within the Buddhist teachings_
One of the three poisons within the Mahayana Buddhist tradition.
One of the three unwholesome roots within the Theravada Buddhist tradition
One of the six root kleshas within the Mahayana Abhidharma teachings
One of the fourteen unwholesome mental factors within the Theravada Abhidharma teachings

 

aversion = Dvesha is fear of getting what we don’t want, or not getting what we do want
Is identified in the following contexts within the Buddhist teachings_
One of the three poisons within the Mahayana Buddhist tradition.
 One of the three unwholesome roots within the Theravada Buddhist tradition
 One of the fourteen unwholesome mental factors within the Theravada Abhidharma teachings

 

Twelve Nidānas =
The Twelve Nidanas are a series of causal links that explain the process of samsaric rebirth and hence the arising dukkha, as well as the possibility to reverse this process, and hence liberate oneself from samsara.
They identify the origin of dukkha (suffering) to be in avijja (ignorance)

 

Cause
Effect
Comments
Ignorance – (Avijjā)
Fabrications (volitional formations/volitional activities)– (Saṅkhāra)
Not knowing suffering, not knowing the origination of suffering, not knowing the cessation of suffering, not knowing the way of practice leading to the cessation of suffering: This is called ignorance.
Fabrications (volitional Formations/volitional activities)– (Saṅkhāra)
Consciousness (rebirth consciousness) – (Viññāṇa)
These three are fabrications: bodily fabrications, verbal fabrications, mental fabrications. These are called fabrications.
Consciousness (rebirth consciousness) – (Viññāṇa)
Name-and-form (mentality and corporeality) – (Nāmarūpa)
These six are classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, intellect-consciousness. This is called consciousness. As seen earlier,consciousness and the organ cannot function without each other.
Name-and-Form (mentality and corporeality) – (Nāmarūpa)
Six-fold sense bases – (Saḷāyatana)
Feeling, perception, intention, contact, and attention: This is called name (i.e. mentality or mind). The four great elements, and the body dependent on the four great elements: This is called form (i.e. corporeality or body).
Six-fold sense bases – (Saḷāyatana)
Contact – (Phassa)
The eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind are the six sense media.
Contact – (Phassa)
Feeling – (Vedanā)
The coming together of the object, the sense medium and the consciousness of that sense medium is calledcontact.
Feeling (Sensation) – (Vedanā)
Craving – (Taṇhā)
Feeling or sensations are of six forms: vision, hearing, olfactory sensation, gustatory sensation, tactilesensation, and intellectual sensation (thought).
Craving – (Taṇhā)
Clinging (attachment) – (Upādāna)
There are these six forms of cravings: cravings with respect to forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touch (massage, sex, pain), and ideas.
Clinging (attachment) – (Upādāna)
Becoming (Karmic Force, similar to volitional formations) (Bhava(KamaBhava))
These four are clingings: sensual clinging,view clinging, practice clinging, and self clinging
Becoming (Karmic force, similar to volitional formations)– (Bhava (KammaBhava))
Birth (similar to rebirth consciousness) – (Jāti)
These three are becoming: sensual becoming, form becoming, formless becoming
Birth (similar to rebirth consciousness)- (Jāti)
Aging, death, and this entire mass of dukkha) – (Jarāmaraṇa)
Birth is any coming-to-be or coming-forth. It refers not just to birth at the beginning of a lifetime, but to birth as new person, acquisition of a new status or position etc.

 

The four stages of enlightenment = 

in Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full
enlightenment =
awakening_Tused to denote insight (prajna, kensho and satori); knowledge (vidhya); the “blowing out” (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimutti); and the attainment of Buddhahood, as exemplified by Gautama Buddha
Fetter = is chain or bond By cutting through all fetters, one attains nibbāna
 
Anāgāmi =
is a partially enlightened person who has cut off the first five chains that bind the ordinary mind. Anagamis are the third of the four aspirants
The Pali terms for the specific chains or fetters (Pali: saṃyojana) of which an anagami is free are:
Sakkāya-diṭṭhi_ Belief in atmān or self
Sīlabbata-parāmāsa_ Attachment to rites and rituals
Vicikicchā_ Skeptical doubt
Kāma-rāga_ Sensuous craving
Byāpāda_ Dislike
Sakadagami =
“returning once” or “once-returner,” is a partially enlightened person, who has cut off the first three chains with which the ordinary mind is bound, and significantly weakened the fourth and fifth. Sakadagaminship is the second stage of the four stages of enlightenment.
The Sakadagamin will be reborn into the realm of the senses (at least a human and at highest, the devas wielding power over the creations of others), at most once more. If, however, he attains the next stage of enlightenment (Anagamiship) in this life, he will not come back to this world.
The three specific chains or fetters (Pali: saṃyojana) of which the Sakadagamin is free are:
Sakkāya-diṭṭhi (Pali) – Belief in self
Sīlabbata-parāmāsa (Pali) – Attachment to rites and rituals
Vicikicchā (Pali) – Skeptical doubt
Sotāpanna =
is a person who has eradicated the first three fetters (sanyojanas) of the mind, namely self-view (or identity), clinging to rites and rituals, and skeptical doubt (in Buddhadharma or the teachings of the Buddha).
Sota-apanna literally means “one who entered (āpanna) the stream (sota)”, after a metaphor which calls the Noble Eightfold Path, ‘a stream’ which leads to Nirvana
Stream-entry (Sota-apatti) is the first of the four stages of enlightenment.
Arhat =
“one who is worthy” is a “perfected person” who has attained nirvana. In other Buddhist traditions the term has also been used for people far advanced along the path of Enlightenment, but who may not have reached full Buddhahood.
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